Shelling of Johnston and Palmyra

Shelling of Johnston and Palmyra Atoll

Part of the Pacific Theater of World War II

December 12 to 24, 1941

Johnston and Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Ocean



Minor damage to U.S. installations, both islands heavily strengthened


 United States
Empire of Japan

Commanders and leaders

Francis Loomis

Units involved

1st Defense Battalion
Various U.S. Navy forces
Civilian contractors


Marine 5-inch coastal guns
Multiple submarines
Possible surface vessels

Casualties and losses

1 Marine wounded
Damaged military installations
Possible damage to Japanese ships


Hawaiian Islands Campaign

Pearl Harbor
1st Midway
Johnston and Palmyra
2nd Midway
3rd Midway

Johnston and Palmyra are two US-controlled atolls located in the Pacific Ocean. Johnston had been claimed for the US in 1858, Palmyra in 1859; both under the Guano Islands act. Following the Attack on Pearl Harbor, Japanese navy forces attacked Allied possessions across the Pacific, including Johnston and Palmyra.


1 Background
2 The attacks
3 Aftermath
4 References

Both islands had been obtained through the Guano Islands Act of 1856, although Palmyra was void of Guano. The lack of guano caused Palmyra to pass through the ownership of many different groups throughout the 19th and 20th centuries. Johnston and Palmyra were placed under US Navy control in 1934 by President Franklin Roosevelt. Both islands were garrisoned and Johnston served as a refueling station for passing US Navy ships. Although an airfield was under construction on Johnston, the only aircraft present on the island were Navy PBY patrol planes, usually anchored offshore.
Johnston became noticeable to the Japanese command because of its location. Although it was too close to Hawaii to be amphibiously assaulted, it was near the major Japanese air base in the Marshall Islands. The executive officer of the 1st Marine Defense Battalion, Major Francis B. Loomis, had arrived on Johnston on December 7, 1941. He had been returning by air from an inspection of the American outposts in the Pacific when Pearl Harbor had been attacked. He then took control of the island’s garrison.
Following news of the Attack on Pearl Harbor, the civilian contractors already present on Johnston began to building more emplacements for the Marines’ guns and positions. Six US Navy ships were also on Johns

Harry Ricardo

Harry Ricardo

Harry Ralph Ricardo
(1885-01-26)26 January 1885
London, England

18 May 1974(1974-05-18) (aged 89)


Rugby School
Trinity College, Cambridge

Beatrice Bertha Hale

3 daughters

Halsey Ralph Ricardo
Catherine Jane Ricardo

Engineering career


Institution of Mechanical Engineers
Royal Aircraft Establishment


Mk V tank engine
Citroen Rosalie diesel engine
Turbulent Head gasoline combustion system
Comet diesel combustion system
Rolls-Royce Crecy
Rolls-Royce Merlin

Significant advance

Diesel and Spark Ignition combustion systems
Aero engines

Fellow of the Royal Society[1]

Sir Harry Ralph Ricardo (26 January 1885 – 18 May 1974) was one of the foremost engine designers and researchers in the early years of the development of the internal combustion engine.
Among his many other works, he improved the engines that were used in the first tanks, oversaw the research into the physics of internal combustion that led to the use of octane ratings, was instrumental in development of the sleeve valve engine design, and invented the Diesel “Comet” Swirl chamber that made high-speed diesel engines economically feasible.


1 Early life
2 Marriage
3 Car engines
4 Tank engines
5 Aircraft engines
6 Advances in engine design
7 World War II
8 Post war period
9 Ricardo Consulting Engineers (now Ricardo plc)
10 Books
11 See also
12 References
13 External links

Early life[edit]

Blue plaque, 13 Bedford Square, London

Harry Ricardo was born at 13 Bedford Square, London in 1885, the eldest of three children, and only son of Halsey Ricardo, the architect, and his wife Catherine Jane, daughter of Sir Alexander Meadows Rendel, a civil engineer. Ricardo was descended from a brother of the famous political economist David Ricardo, a Sephardi Jew of Portuguese origin (hence the last name). He was one of the first people in England to see an automobile when his grandfather purchased one in 1898. He was from a relatively wealthy family and educated at Rugby School. In October 1903 he joined Trinity College, Cambridge as a civil engineering student. Ricardo had been using tools and building engines since the age of ten.[2]
In 1911 Ricardo married Beatrice Bertha Hale, an art student at the Slade School of Art, in London. Her father, Charles Bowdich Hale, was the Ricardos’ family doctor. They had three daughters, an

Robert Miracle

This article is an orphan, as no other articles link to it. Please introduce links to this page from related articles; try the Find link tool for suggestions. (April 2016)

Robert Miracle is an American fraudster, who was sentenced to 13 years in prison in 2011, after pleading guilty to wire fraud and tax evasion, in connection with a $65m Ponzi scheme involving investment in Indonesian oilfields.[1][2][3][4]

^ David Smith (1970-01-01). “200 people in the US exposed for using tax havens in Panama Papers leak | News”. The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-04-06. 
^ “Robert Miracle sentenced to 13 years for fraud – Puget Sound Business Journal”. Retrieved 2016-04-06. 
^ “FBI — Seattle Businessman Sentenced to 13 Years in Prison for Mail Fraud and Tax Evasion”. Retrieved 2016-04-06. 
^ Hamilton, Keegan (2012-03-23). “Seattle News and Events | George Atwater and Robert Miracle: Seattle Oil Tycoons”. Retrieved 2016-04-06. 

This United States biographical article related to crime is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


William Augustus Hall

William Augustus Hall

William Augustus Hall (October 15, 1815 – December 15, 1888) was an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives. He is the brother of Governor and Representative Willard Preble Hall and also the father of Representative Uriel Sebree Hall.


1 Early years
2 Political life
3 Later years
4 References

Early years[edit]
Born in Portland, Maine, on October 15, 1815, Hall moved with his family to Harpers Ferry, Virginia at a young age and attended the local schools there. He attended Yale College, relocated to Missouri in 1840, and was admitted to the bar there in 1841.
Political life[edit]
Hall was a Captain in the U.S.-Mexican War.
He served as judge of the Circuit Court in Missouri from 1847–1861, and as delegate to the Missouri Constitutional Convention in 1861. That same year he was elected to the 37th Congress as a replacement for John Bullock Clark, who had been expelled from Congress for taking up arms against the United States. He was elected on his own merit in 1862 and served from January 20, 1862 until March 4, 1865. He did not seek an additional term in 1864.
In 1855, he was the judge who presided over the trial of Celia, the 19 year old pregnant slave woman who was on trial for the alleged murder (in self defense) of her master, who had been sexually abusing her for years. In response to the defenses’ motion that the 1845 law protecting “any woman” legally entitled Celia to defend herself from a would-be rapist the same as a white woman, Hall instructed the jury that a slave had no right to resist her master, even in the case of sexual assault. The jury subsequently found Celia guilty and sentenced her to death.
He served as a delegate to the Democratic National Convention in 1864.
Later years[edit]
After his term in Congress ended, Hall returned to the practice of law. He died near Darksville, Missouri on December 15, 1888, and was buried in a family plot.

United States Congress. “William Augustus Hall (id: H000079)”. Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. 
Biographical Directory of the United States Congress 1774 – 2005 (2005). Washington, DC: Joint Committee on Printing.
Kestenbaum, L. (n.d.). The Political Graveyard. Retrieved June 20, 2007, from :

United States House of Representatives

Preceded by
John Bullock Clark
Member of the U.S

Heber Springs School District

Heber Springs School District


1100 West Pine Street
Heber Springs, Arkansas 72543
United States

District information


Arkansas Department of Education


District ID

Students and staff


128.57 (on FTE basis)[1]

Student-teacher ratio

Other information


Heber Springs School District is a public school district based in Heber Springs, Arkansas, United States. The Heber Springs School District provides early childhood, elementary and secondary education for more than 1,700 kindergarten through grade 12 students at its three facilities within Cleburne County, Arkansas. The district is accredited by the Arkansas Department of Education (ADE).


1 Schools

1.1 Secondary schools
1.2 Elementary schools

2 References
3 External links

Secondary schools[edit]

Heber Springs High School, serving approximately 500 students in grades 9 through 12.
Heber Springs Middle School, serving approximately 400 students in grades 6 through 8.

Elementary schools[edit]

Heber Springs Elementary School, serving approximately 800 students in kindergarten through grade 5.


^ a b c d e “Search for Public School Districts – District Detail for Heber Springs School District”. National Center for Education Statistics. Institute of Education Sciences. Retrieved 19 November 2012. 

External links[edit]

Official website

Arkansas portal
Schools portal

This Arkansas school-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Irish Hospitals’ Sweepstake

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Nurses drawing “Sweepstake Tickets” at the first Ballsbridge draw, circa 1940

The Irish Hospitals’ Sweepstake was a lottery established in the Irish Free State in 1930 as the Irish Free State Hospitals’ Sweepstake to finance hospitals. It is generally referred to as the Irish Sweepstake, frequently abbreviated to Irish Sweeps or Irish Sweep. The Public Charitable Hospitals (Temporary Provisions) Act, 1930 was the act that established the lottery; as this act expired in 1934, in accordance with its terms, the Public Hospitals Acts were the legislative basis for the scheme thereafter. The main organisers were Richard Duggan, Captain Spencer Freeman and Joe McGrath. Duggan was a well known Dublin bookmaker who had organised a number of sweepstakes in the decade prior to setting up the Hospitals’ Sweepstake. Captain Freeman was a Welsh-born engineer and former captain in the British Army. After the Constitution of Ireland was enacted in 1937 the name Irish Hospitals’ Sweepstake was adopted.


1 History

1.1 In the United Kingdom and North America

2 Cultural references
3 Photographs
4 References
5 Further reading

The sweepstake was established because there was a need for investment in hospitals and medical services and the public finances were unable to meet this expense at the time. As the population of Ireland was unable to raise sufficient funds, because of its low population, a significant amount of the funds were raised in the United Kingdom and United States, often among the emigrant Irish. Potentially winning tickets were drawn from rotating drums, usually by nurses in uniform. Each such ticket was assigned to a horse expected to run in one of several horse races, including the Cambridgeshire Handicap, Derby and Grand National.[1] Tickets that drew the favourite horses thus stood a higher likelihood of winning and a series of winning horses had to be chosen on the accumulator system, allowing for enormous prizes.

F. F. Warren, the engineer who designed the mixing drums from which sweepstake tickets were drawn

The original sweepstake draws were held at The Mansion House, Dublin on 19 May 1939 under the supervision of the Chief Commissioner of Police, and were mo

Myrtle Station, Ontario

Myrtle Station

Unincorporated community

Coordinates: 44°00′30″N 78°57′54″W / 44.00833°N 78.96500°W / 44.00833; -78.96500



Regional municipality


Time zone

 • Summer (DST)

Forward sortation area
L0B 1A0

Area code(s)
905 and 289



Myrtle Station is a community in the Town of Whitby, Durham Region, Ontario, Canada.
Myrtle Station is located approximately one kilometre north of the community of Myrtle. In 1884, the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) built a rail line between Toronto and Montreal through the area. A railway station was constructed and the community that grew in the vicinity was known as Myrtle Station. The community was originally part of Whitby Township and became part of the Town of Whitby when the two municipalities amalgamated in 1968. From 1994 until 2004 Myrtle Station hosted the annual Grasstock music and arts festival.
The CPR line remains, but now ends in Havelock.

Commemorating 100 Years of Peace, Plenty, Progress in the County of Ontario. 1955.

External links[edit]

Historic Photos of Myrtle Station, Ontario at Whitby Public Library and Archives Digital Collection
Myrtle Station at Geographical Names of Canada

Coordinates: 44°00′30″N 78°57′54″W / 44.00833°N 78.96500°W / 44.00833; -78.96500

This Ontario geographical article about a location in the Golden Horseshoe is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.




Železnjik, one of the peaks of Grmeč

Highest point

1,605 m (5,266 ft)

44°40′N 16°27′E / 44.67°N 16.45°E / 44.67; 16.45Coordinates: 44°40′N 16°27′E / 44.67°N 16.45°E / 44.67; 16.45



Location in BiH

Bosnia and Herzegovina

Parent range
Dinaric Alps

Grmeč (Cyrillic: Грмеч) is a mountain in north-western Bosnia and Herzegovina. It is more than 60 kilometres long, stretching between the city of Bihać and the town of Ključ. The highest peak of Grmeč is Crni vrh (“Black Peak”) at 1,605 metres (5,266 ft) above sea level.[1] Grmeč is surrounded by the city of Bihać and towns Bosanski Petrovac, Ključ, Sanski Most, and Bosanska Krupa.
Grmeč is the best-known place of bullfights in the Balkans. They are called the Corrida of Grmeč (Grmečka korida) and have been organised on every first Sunday in August for over 200 years, attracting thousands of visitors. These are fights between bulls themselves and there is no death of a bull. Fights happen in an empty field. The Corrida of Grmeč was depicted by the sculptor Slobodan Pejić.[2] The sculpture of two bulls in a fight, made in bronze in 2004, has been compared to a confrontation of the oppressor and the oppressed or of the Bosnian people and the Austrian Emperor.[3]
See also[edit]

List of mountains in Bosnia and Herzegovina


^ “Statistical Yearbook of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina” (PDF). Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Federal Office of Statistics. 2009. p. 28. 
^ “Bullfights of Grmec”. Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 16 February 2012. 
^ (Slovene) Vanda Mušič (ed). Bassin, Aleksander. Kokot, Staša. Slobodan Pejić. Self-published by Vanda Mušič Chapman. 2007. ISBN 978-961-245-325-1.

This Una-Sana Canton geography article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.


Wikimedia Commons has media related to Grmeč.

Emund Eriksson

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Emund Eriksson

King of Sweden


House of Munsö


Emund Eriksson (?- c. 970), (English: Edmund), was a Swedish king of disputed historicity. According to Adam of Bremen, Emund was allied with Harold Bluetooth. Adam of Bremen only gives Eric the Victorious as successor to Emund, but he does not tell how they were related. He may very well have been the brother of Björn (III) Eriksson, who the Norse sagas name as the father of Eric the Victorious. This would have been in accordance with the Germanic system of co-rulership (Diarchy) in which two brothers were elected kings, and which was evidently used by the Swedes.
See also[edit]

Early Swedish History

Emund Eriksson
House of Munsö

Preceded by
Erik Ringsson
Semi-legendary king of Sweden
Succeeded by
The last incumbent

Wymondham (disambiguation)

Wymondham may refer to:

Wymondham, Norfolk
Wymondham, Leicestershire
Wymondham College

This disambiguation page lists articles about distinct geographical locations with the same name.
If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point directly to the intended article.